Image of Romania in the United Kingdom
Thoughts by Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Romania to the United Nations – New York, posted in Nine O’Clock on 29 November 2018.
11 November 1918: after four years, three months and two weeks, the World War One (The Great War) ended. It included Europe, the USA, as well as countries from Asia, Pacific, Middle East and Africa. With 20 million deaths and 21 million wounded, WW1 was one of the deadliest conflicts in the history of the human race. On the East front in Europe, 800,000 Romanian soldiers fought on the Entente side and 335,706 of them have fallen in combat, while 130,000 civilians also lost their lives. Modern Romania was built on their ultimate sacrifice.
Earlier that year, on 11 February, the United States President Woodrow Wilson announced his famous principle of self-determination: “National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self-determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action.”
Based on this principle, on 27 March the National Council (the Parliament) of Bessarabia, ancient part of the medieval Romanian Principality of Moldova and annexed by Russia in 1812, proclaimed union with the Kingdom of Romania. On 28 November, the General Congress of Bukovina, also separated from medieval Moldova and attached by force in 1774 to the Habsburg Empire, voted for union with Romania. And on 1st December 1918, the representatives of Transylvanian Romanians gathered in the capital city Alba Iulia and voted the Union. The representatives of the Transylvanian Saxons approved the act on 15 December in the city of Medias. On 19 February 1919, Baron Joseph Fay, speaking in the Romanian Parliament on behalf of the Szekelys living in Transylvania, expressed their support for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
A glimpse on the history of Transylvania shows that the region was part of the Dacian Kingdom (1st – 2nd centuries) and the Roman Dacia (2dn – 3rd centuries). Saxon historian Konrad Gündisch says that findings from the 4th to the 7th centuries – Roman coins, other objects with Latin inscription and early Christian artifacts – prove that Christian Daco-Roman (Proto-Romanian) population remained and flourished in Dacia after the Romans withdrawal in 271. German historian Kurt Horedt dates the entering of the Hungarians in Transylvania in the period between the 10th century and the 13th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum (Latin for The Deeds of the Hungarians), а medieval work written in the 12th century, when Hungarians came into Transylvania, they found well-structured Romanian principalities whose leaders Gelu, Glad and Menumorut they defeated in several battles.
After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Principality of Transylvania emerged as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. In 1711 the Habsburg Empire took control of Transylvania, and in 1867 Transylvania was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, until 1918.
Fényes Elek, a 19th-century Hungarian statistician, estimated in 1842 that in the population of Transylvania for the years 1830-1840 the majority were 62.3% Romanians and 23.3% Hungarians. According to the 2011 Romanian census, the ethnic groups in Transylvania are Romanians – 70.62%, Hungarians (including Szekelys) – 17.92%, Roma – 3.99%, Ukrainians – 0.63%, Germans – 0.49%, other – 0.77%, while 5.58% have not declared their ethnicity.
The Great Union of 1918 represented the accomplishment of Romanians’ dream for national unity, which was first fulfilled in 1600, when Prince Michael the Brave united the three provinces which make up today’s Romania – Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania. Michael, ruler of Wallachia, marched into Transylvania and, with help from the Székelys, defeated a Hungarian army, entered Alba Iulia and in 1599 became ruler of Transylvania. Then he crossed the Carpathian Mountains in Moldova, reached the capital city Iaşi and was declared Prince of Moldova. In a document dated 6 July 1600, he referred to himself as “ruler of Wallachia and of Transylvania and of the whole country of Moldova”. The union lasted for only a short period of time, as Michael was assassinated on 9 August 1601. As historian Constantin C. Giurescu remarked, “Never in Romanian history was a moment of such highness and glory so closely followed by bitter failure.” But Michael the Brave remained in the minds of Romanians as the first legendary unifier, and his vision became the goal for which generations fought and finally achieved in 1918.
Loyal to the principles of the Great Union, on 28 June 1919 Romania was one of the 44 states that signed the Covenant the League of Nations, when the organization was established by the Treaty of Versailles. Since then, Romania developed and consolidated a strong tradition of multilateral diplomacy, with high professional standards set up by Foreign Minister Nicolae Titulescu, who was twice elected President of the League of Nations (1930 and 1931) and also served for ten years as ambassador to the United Kingdom. In 1967, Romanian Foreign Minister Corneliu Manescu repeated Titulescu’s success and was elected President of the UN General Assembly, being the first representative from an Eastern European country to hold such a high dignity.
In the 100 years that have passed since the historical moments of 1918, Romania has undergone a multitude of transformations, ranging from different forms of government to different levels of socio-economic development, and from democracy to dictatorship and back to democracy. Today, it has diplomatic relations with 190 states, is a member of the European Union and NATO, while the United Nations remains a centerpiece of its foreign policy. Furthermore, during the first semester of 2019, Romania will hold the Presidency of the EU Council. Much still remains to be done in Romania, but during all these transformations one thing always remained constant: its long term commitment for peace, justice and development. This is also the motto of Romania’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council for the period 2020-2021.
MAS Talks: Ambasadorul României la ONU, Ion Jinga: România este bine reprezentată şi foarte respectată în materie de misiuni ONU de menţinere a păcii
Interviu publicat în Monitorul Apărării și Securității la 31 august 2018.
România are o prezenţă “activă, foarte apreciată, remarcabilă în misiunile ONU de menţinere a păcii”, a spus, MAS Talks, ambasadorul României la Organizaţia Naţiunilor Unite, Ion Jinga.
“România are o prezenţă activă, foarte apreciată, remarcabilă în misiuni de menţinere a păcii. Am început să fim prezenţi în astfel de misiuni în 1991. A fost o misiune ONU la frontiera dintre Irak şi Kuweit şi de atunci am fost prezenţi în 20 de misiuni sub drapel ONU, cu efective de peste 12.500 de oameni. Vorbim de contribuţii ale Ministerului Apărării Naţionale, de contribuţii ale Ministerului Afacerilor Interne, ale Serviciului de Protecţie şi Pază. În momentul de faţă, suntem prezenţi în peste zece astfel de misiuni şi operaţiuni de menţinere a păcii şi misiuni politice speciale ale ONU. La începutul anului eram în doisprezece, două dintre ele s-au închis. De fapt una dintre ele s-a închis, cea din Liberia şi într-o altă misiune s-a terminat ciclul pentru contingentul romîn. Suntem prezenţi în zone de risc ridicat. Militarii noştri sunt foarte apreciaţi. Suntem prezenţi atât în spaţiul anglofon, cât şi în spaţiul francofon”, a detaliat, la ediţia MAS Talks, ambasadorul Ion Jinga, şeful Misiunii Permanente a României la Organizaţia Naţiunilor Unite, preşedinte al Comsiei ONU pentru Dezarmare şi Securitate internaţională.
Referindu-se la spaţiul francofon, ambasadorul Jinga a spus: “Şcoala de Aplicaţii a Jandarmeriei Române are un curs foarte bun în limba franceză pentru ofiţeri de protecţie internă, ofiţeri de jandarmi, ofiţeri de poliţie. Cursul a început, cred, în 2003. Au fost 15 promoţii până acum, cu ofiţeri din 26 de state francofone. Este o reclamă foarte bună pentru România.Este un argument că noi nu doar vorbim. Şi facem. Şi ce facem, facem bine atunci când vorbim de Organizaţia Naţiunilor Unite”.
Ambasadorul român la ONU a remarcat faptul că “în materie de contribuţie cu poliţie, suntem pe locul întâi în Europa, ca şi număr de poliţişti angajaţi în misiuni sub drapel ONU”, dar şi că “anul trecut, un ofiţer român a deţinut cea mai importantă funcţie militară în misiunea ONU din Afganistan”, sau că “în 2015, o femeie-poliţist român a fost declarată «poliţistul anului» într-o misiune de menţinere a păcii ONU în Haiti”.
„În acelaşi timp, o contribuţie importantă o aduce Serviciul de Protecţie şi Pază. Suntem singura ţară din lume care furnizează ONU unităţi de protecţie apropiată. Nu vorbim de ofiţeri individuali, ci de unităţi .De fiecare dată când secretarul general ONU, secretarul general adjunct, alţi înalţi oficiali, demnitari ONU călătoresc în spaţii de risc, ei sunt protejaţi de către o echipă de ofiţeri SPP din România. Avem în momentul de faţă două astfel de echipe. Anul trecut acţionau simultan patru astfel de echipe. Centrul de excelenţă al SPP de la Bucureşti este acreditat de ONU şi sunt peste 200 de ofiţeri ONU, din ţări de pe întregul glob, care au fost pregătiţi aici ca ofiţeri de protecţie apropiată”, a mai spus, la MAS Talks, ambasadorul Ion Jinga.
„Deci, în materie de misiuni de menţinere a păcii suntem foarte bine reprezentaţi şi, mai mult decât atât, suntem foarte respectaţi”, a apreciat ambasadorul Jinga.
În ceea ce priveşte angajamentele “la zi” ale României, ambasadorul Ion Jinga a detaliat la MAS Talks: „Din angajamentele care au fost asumate la cel mai înalt nivel în 2015, România are deja evaluată o companie de infanterie, gata să răspundă solicitării ONU. Avem detaşament de deminare. Avem un avion de transport, ca şi contribuţie suplimentară. În materie de poliţie, avem o unitate constituită de poliţie, care este în rezervă şi aşteaptă o solicitare din partea ONU. În cursul anului 2019, aşteptăm evaluarea unui număr de patru elicoptere de transport, pe care România le-a promis pentru misiuni de menţinere a păcii“.
Prezentăm un rezumat al remarcilor ambasadorului Ion Jinga la MAS Talks
Despre a 73 a sesiune a Adunării Generale a ONU:
„Vorbim de cea de a 73 sesiune, durează din septembrie până în septembrie, anul următor. Fiecare sesiune are o temă, o temă generală. Anul acesta are o temă cu un titlu generos şi sugestiv: «Să facem Naţiunile Unite relevante pentru toţi oamenii. Leadership-ul global în serviciul păcii, dezvoltării şi stabilităţii planetare»”.
“Sigur că, dincolo de un astfel de titlu frumos, agenda unei sesiuni a Organizaţiei Naţiunilor Unite include zeci, sute de puncte, de rezoluţii şi practic foarte multe dintre ele sunt procese care continuă, sunt updatări, sunt aduceri la zi sau pur şi simplu accente într-un sens sau în altul, în funcţie de evoluţiile la nivel global. Astfel încât, în general vorbind, pe agenda acestei sesiuni vom găsi practic aceleaşi lucruri care au fost şi anul trecut, şi acum doi ani dintr-o perspectivă actualizată, în funcţie de evoluţii”.
„O să găsim dezvoltare – Agenda 2030, o să găsim migraţie – în decembrie, în Maroc, va avea loc summit-ul privind adoptarea compactului global pe migraţie, care a fost negociat până în luna iunie, la New York. O să găsim chestiuni care ţin de dezarmare, sunt cele şase comisii principale ale Adunării Generale, comisia întâi pentru dezarmare şi securitate internaţională. Anul acesta, în premieră absolută, este prezidată de România, prin reprezentantul său la New York”.
„Găsim în acelaşi timp toată problematica de pe agenda ECOSOC”.
„Sunt chestiuni care ţin din ce în ce mai mult de agenda secretarului general. Vorbim de reforma sistemului ONU, o reformă care este în faza finală, dar mai sunt necesare câteva ajustări fine”.
„Sesiunea de anul acesta va debuta cu un summit dedicat personalităţii lui Nelson Mandela (…) un campion pentru libertate, justiţie socială, respectarea dreptului internaţional, o figură emblematică pentru întreaga lume”.
„O astfel de sesiune are ca element de prim-plan „săptămâna la nivel înalt”. Cnd participă şefi de stat, prim-miniştri, miniştri de externe, ca şefi de delegaţii. Este cea mai mare densitate ce poate fi găsită undeva de lideri pe metru pătrat. Glumind puţin,este o săptămână infernală la New York (…) Glumim la New York : dacă reuşeşti să supravieţuieşti săptămânii la nivel înalt, după aceea restul e doar muncă”.
Ce presupune funcţia de preşedinte al Comisiei ONU pentru dezarmare şi securitate internaţională.
„Este o premieră: prima dată când România, în cei 60 şi ceva de ani de apartenenţă la ONU preia această comisie, în poziţia de preşedinte”.
„Dincolo de activitatea curentă pe parcursul unui an (…) reuniuni la care participă reprezentanţii tuturor celor 193 de ţări membre ale ONU (…) Practic, sesiunea se desfăşoară în trei segmente: unul de expuneri generale, unul tematic, în care sunt abordate toate zonele ce ţin de dezarmare, problematica armamentelor – de la arme uşoare, până la arme chimice, arme nucleare, politici de dezarmare şi, în fine, faza a treia, ultimele zece zile sunt dedicate adoptării rezoluţiilor. Sunt căteva zeci de rezoluţii. Fiecare dintre ele este negociată, fiecare virgulă este importantă (…)”
„Talentul preşedintelui acestei comisii, dacă poate exista un astfel de talent, este acela de a găsi numitorul comun, consensul, de a acţiona dintr-o perspectivă de «honest broker». Este foarte important să fi perceput ca un constructor, fără parti pris-uri, ca o persoană a cărei misiune şi capacitate este de a construi consensul”.
„Iar rezultatul pozitiv al sesiunii Comisiei este întotdeauna evaluat de capacitatea de a adopta rezoluţiile prin consens.”
„(…) La sfârşitul zilei decizia finală îţi aparţine ţie ca preşedinte. Succesul, dacă este, e al tuturor, al echipei. Atunci când apar dificultăţi, lumea se uită la tine şi aşteaptă ca tu să găseşti soluţia.”
„Este o responsabilitate pe care o voi exercita în numele României şi sunt deosebit de onorat.”
Şansele de a redeveni membru nepermanent al Consiliului de Securitate al ONU
„Şansele depind de noi. Este o muncă de echipă, în care este implicată centrala Ministerului de Externe, toate misiunile diplomatice ale României, misiunea de la New York, ca avanpost. Alegerile au loc la New York, multe negocieri se desfăşoară acolo şi obţinere de sprijin”.
„Există anumite lucruri care pot fi obţinute prin intervenţie la nivel politic. Şi aceste alegeri sunt un proces eminamente politic.”
„Şansele depind de noi, de determinarea noastră, de capacitatea de a ne mobiliza şi de tăria cu care credem în fezabilitatea, succesul acestui obiectiv”.
„România a mai fost membră în Consiliul de Securitate anterior. Practic, cam o dată la 15 ani am fost în Consiliul de Securitate. În 2020 s-ar împlini 15 ani. Următorul slot, următorul interval liber – sigur, ne putem depune candidatura oricând, dar sunt deja alţi candidaţi – ar fi undeva după anul 2040” .
„Nu suntem singuri, avem un contracandidat. Sunt două ţări ce candidează pentru un singur loc”.
„Şi dacă am fi singuri, nu este simplu pentru că alegerea este rezultatul unui vot care presupune sprijin din partea a cel puţin două treimi dintre ţările membre ONU. Într-o aritmetică simplă înseamnă cel puţin 129 de voturi”.
„Nu există un loc mai important în lume pentru prezenţa unei ţări.În Consiliul de Securitate sunt doar 15 ţări. 15 din 193.”
„Dacă reuşim să readucem România acolo, practic doi ani România va fi în topul deciziei mondiale privind pacea şi securitatea planetei”
„Influenţa unei astfel de poziţii poate să aducă dividende la un orizont de zece ani.”
Unde am mai fost implicaţi la nivel înalt la Naţiunile Unite
“Avem o prezenţă care ne-a consolidat imaginea de susţinători al multilateralismului.”
„Am să mă refer la o perioadă mai recentă (…) de când am preluat mandatul la New York, august-septembrie 2015.”
“Am avut preşedinţia Comisiei pentru Dezvoltare socială (…) Am fost ales preşedinte al Comisiei pentru populaţie şi dezvoltare. (…) Am fost preşedintele Procesului de negocieri inter-guvernamentale privind reforma Consiliului de Securitate (…) În trei ani am condus, conduc, şapte procese, comisii (…) Am condus grupul de experţi inter-guvernamentali privind transparenţa cheltuielilor militare (… ) Am fost ales preşedintele ambasadorilor francofoni la ONU (…) Conduc, în numele României, Comisia pentru consolidarea păcii.”
„Este o muncă de echipă şi sunt recunoscător colegilor mei, de la New York, din centrala Ministerului de Externe, pentru sprijin, susţinere şi pentru felul în care servim România”
Dacă ONU nu ar mai exista…
„Dacă nu ar mai exista ar trebui să îl inventăm sau să îl reinventăm. Mi-e teamă că nu am avea ce pune în loc”.
„Nu este o organizaţie perfectă (…) Şi Organizaţia Naţiunilor Unite are nevoie de adaptări (…) Avem nevoie de Organizaţia Naţiunilor Unite pentru că este singurul for în care statele se adună şi putem discuta despre orice: de la pacea sau războiul în anumite părţi ale lumii, la aspecte existenţiale pentru unele ţări”.
„Lumea ar fi arătat cu totul altfel fără ONU. De regulă, criticile vin de la oameni care nu ştiu cum funcţionează ONU şi nu ştiu nici ce face ONU.”
„(…) La ONU se construieşte pacea, dezvoltarea planetei, consensul, toleranţa şi acceptarea reciprocă. Pentru că suntem diferiţi, dar toţi trăim pe aceeaşi planetă. Şi trebuie să avem grijă de planetă. Pentru că e a noastră şi nu avem alta.”
Remarks by Dr. Ion Jinga during the UN Peacebuilding Commission – African Union Peace and Security Council interactive meeting
On 18 July 2018, H.E. Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Romania to the United Nations – New York, Chair of the UN Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), expressed his thoughts during the joint meeting of the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and the African Union Peace and Security Council (AU PSC) on the collaboration between the two international bodies:
#DiplomaticCentennial / Ion Jinga: Romania’s candidacy for a non-permanent seat on UN Security Council, priority zero
Interview with H.E. Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Romania to the United Nations – New York, posted in Agerpres on 05.04.2018
The current priority zero for the Permanent Mission of Romania to the UN is Romania’s candidacy for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council in 2020-2021. ” Only 15 states are there, five of which are permanent members. I think bringing Romania for two years at the top of the global decision-making process regarding the planet’s peace and security, alongside the great powers of the world, I think deserves any effort,” ambassador Ion Jinga said in an interview with AGERPRES.
A seat on the UN Security Council represents “the most important position any country may want in the international arena because it offers visibility, prestige, influence and ability to radiate influence in a geographic area that exceeds the extent traditionally determined by geographic size, population, economic or military might,” Jinga explained.
According to him, Romania participates in two-thirds of the UN peacekeeping missions and two special political missions. Under these missions, Romanian soldiers, police officers and gendarmes hold key positions in the command structures of the forces in the areas of intelligence, operations, communications, logistics and personnel, civil-military cooperation, which proves the recognition of their professionalism.
In his e-mail interview, Jinga also talked about current affairs on the UN agenda, such as the reform of the Security Council, “an eminently political process,” and the situation of migrants and refugees. At the same time, he also mentioned young people who want apply for internships at the Permanent Mission of Romania at the UN.
The interview is part of the editorial project #DiplomaticCentennial conducted by AGERPRES throughout the year, focusing on diplomatic relations in the context of the 100th anniversary of Romania’s Greater Union.
AGERPRES: In 2006, Romania submitted its candidacy for another non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council, the seat allocated to the East European Group, in 2020-2021. The official campaign to promote this candidacy was launched in June 2017 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York in the presence of Foreign Minister Teodor Melescanu, and the elections will take place in June 2019. How difficult the negotiations to get the seat are? What would be Romania’s priorities as a non-permanent member of the Security Council?
Ion Jinga: A seat on the UN Security Council represents “the most important position any country may want in the international arena because it offers visibility, prestige, influence and ability to radiate influence in a geographic area that exceeds the extent traditionally determined by geographic size, population, economic or military might. To be elected, a state must receive the support of at least 2/3 of the total UN members, i.e. 129 votes, so election to the Security Council requires considerable effort even when the number of candidates coincides with the number of vacated seats. It is even more difficult in competition situations, as is the case with Romania’s candidacy, where we have a counter-candidate in Estonia. Each country tries to capitalise on its own strengths, including the relationships it has developed over the years not only on its own continent but also in other parts of the world, its diplomatic network, its contribution to advancing peace and international security, including under the UN flag, development assistance, projects of interest to the interlocutors to whom they are addressed, the reputation enjoyed among other states, including respecting the engagements assumed in the campaign.
Romania is running on a long-term commitment to peace, justice and development, which is, in fact, the motto of our campaign. The priorities Romania has taken up, if elected to sit on the Security Council, are to promote the objectives and principles of the UN Charter, respect for multilateralism and international law, conflict prevention and peaceful settlement, increased efficiency of peacekeeping missions, promoting peace, promoting respect for human rights, protecting women and children in armed conflicts, improving cooperation between the Security Council and regional and sub-regional organisations in preserving international peace and security.
AGERPRES: Mr. ambassador, last year you were co-chairman of the intergovernmental negotiations regarding the reform of the UN Security Council. What view on the reform of the Security Council does Romania support and, on the other hand, in the context of the personal experience gained in this process, what are the changes that stand the greatest chance of materialisation?
Ion Jinga: The Intergovernmental Negotiations Process (IGN) on the Security Council reform is considered to be the most complex component of the overall United Nations reform system, given that this body has the primary responsibility of preserving world peace and security. In the debates, which focused on five major themes – the Council’s relationship with the General Assembly, the magnitude of the enlargement and the working methods, membership categories, the veto right, regional representation – we started up from the premise that the negotiations can only advance through an unbiased, balanced approach, characterised by transparency and pragmatism, coupled with creativity by the two co-chairs, taking into account the aspirations of the member states and avoiding the transformation of the process into a zero-sum game. The result of this one-year work is the document entitled “Elements of Commonality and Issues for Further Considerations,” which summarises both the progress made with the negotiations we have coordinated with our Tunisian colleague and the coordinates for the IGN this year.
The reform of the Security Council is an eminently political process which, depending on the depth of the changes adopted, can have major geopolitical consequences, so it cannot be summed up simply by collecting data and positions. My approach, as co-chair of the IGN, was to create confidence bridges between groups of states with somewhat different positions on certain subjects, with the aim of finding an acceptable solution for all. Since all aspects of the Security Council’s reform are interconnected, we have introduced into the negotiations a principle used by the European Union – which we knew very well since we were part of the negotiation team of Romania’s accession to the EU – “nothing is agreed until everything is agreed”. This little innovation translated to New York has led to a certain increase in confidence that in turn allowed us to build the skeleton of the document we were talking about. I cannot predict what this year’s developments will be, and any progress depends on the degree of support from the member countries; one of the resolutions underlying these negotiations states that any major change must enjoy the member states’ widest possible political acceptance. Romania supports the reform of the Security Council so that this body becomes more transparent and efficient, adapted to the realities of the 21st century. An important point for us is the increase in the representation of the Eastern European Group, which also includes Romania, by allocating it an additional non-permanent seat.
AGERPRES: In an interview of September 2016 you were saying, in the context of the migration crisis, that people should have more empathy with refugees and migrants, and imagine for a moment that one day we could find ourselves in their stead. Over the past and a half year since then, have you noticed any change in attitudes towards migrants and refugees in the countries of destination?
Ion Jinga: The migrants and refugees status is one of the topics that has been most discussed by the United Nations Organization as of lately. Based on the New York Declaration regarding the refugees and the migrants, of September 2016, the UN member states committed to negotiate and adopt two fundamental documents, the Global Compact for Migration and the Global Compact for Refugees, respectively. These are now subject to full negotiations in New York and Geneva. We are carefully watching the debates and negotiations in New York with respect to the Global Compact for Migration and we hope that they will materialize in the adoption of the document of December 10-11, signed in Morocco. The Compact approaches the situation of migrants from a full perspective, a 360-degree one I would say, starting from the causes that led to migration, the migrants’ track and their arrival in the countries of destination. In respect to the attitude towards migrants, the draft that is being negotiated right now confirms the positive aspect of legal migration and aims at eliminating discrimination and promoting public speeches based on concrete facts and data, in order to shape a correct perception and free from the emotional impact. The presentation of the positive aspects of migration and the need for building an objective public perception on migrants are among the topics included in the report presented by the UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, in the beginning of this year, titled “Making migration work for all.” It would be hazardous to anticipate now the finalization of the ongoing negotiations regarding the Global Compact for Migration. We can only hope that there will be identified the best solutions to answers to expectations of transited and destination countries, to the need of stability and development of the origin countries and, first of all, to the huge hopes for a decent life that the migrants have in tomorrow and in the ones who make the decisions in their respect. At UN level there are many steps that have been taken since 2016 in what concerns this topic, and these steps are endorsed by all the states, either states of origin, transited states and states of destination.
AGERPRES: And since we talk about empathy, on February 28, the US Ambassador to UN, Nikki Haley, delivered an emotional speech after the vote of the UN Council on the request for a humanitarian truce of 30 days in Syria, while accusing Russia of delaying the vote, in the context in which Syrian army bombardments continued in Eastern Ghouta. “Maybe we don’t know the faces of these people we are talking about. Maybe we don’t know their names, or them, but they do know us. And we have disappointed all these people this week. I believe that we have unity in this,” said the US Ambassador. Is this an example of the Security Council’s incapacity to act promptly, in the current formula, when we need this the most?
Ion Jinga: The intervention of the US’s permanent representative took place in the context of negotiations regarding the Resolution 2401 (2018), adopted by the Security Council on 24.02.2018. Ambassador Nikki Haley is someone that I have a special appreciation for, both as a professional and as a human being, and I admire her for her inspiration that helps her express what very many of us feel in certain moments, and the Syrian people’s drama is hard to put into words. In the respective case, the Security Council met in successive sessions that lasted for three days, for there existed the certainty that none of the permanent members were going to use their right of veto. In the end, the resolution was adopted by consensus, in a situation when every second of delay could have meant new victims. The efficiency of the Security Council resides in the adoption with celerity of some resolutions but, especially, in their implementation. From this perspective, the unity of the Council members must exist both in adopting a resolution and in transposing it into practice.
There is a lot of criticism among the UN member states regarding the use of the right of veto, as well as the attempts to limit it being used in the sense of allowing the adoption of some resolutions on humanitarian situations, crimes against humanity, war crimes or other atrocities. As I mentioned earlier, the right to veto matter is on the agenda of the Security Council reform process.
AGERPRES: In how many peacekeeping and political missions of the UN is Romania involved right now, with troops and police officers? By which is Romania remarking itself during these UN missions?
Ion Jinga: In the beginning of 2018, Romania was effectively participating with manpower from the Ministry of National Defence and the Protection and Guard Service (SPP) in ten peacekeeping missions (Cyprus, DR of the Congo, Central African Republic, India-Pakistan, Haiti, Kosovo, Liberia, Mali, Sudan, Southern Sudan) and two special political missions (Afghanistan, Libya), under the UN flag.
Basically, we are involved in two thirds of the UN peacekeeping missions (there are 15 in total) and in two of the eight special political missions. In manpower terms, Romania ranks 71st among 123 states which contribute with troops and police officers to the missions carried out under the UN aegis. In all these missions, the Romanian military, police officers and gendarmes occupy key positions in the command structures of the forces, in the intelligence, operations, communications, logistics and personnel, civilian-military cooperation fields. Last year, Romania held the highest position that a military can have in the UN mission in Afghanistan, which represented a recognition of the professionalism of the Romanian military. In 2015, a woman officer received the title of International Female Police Peacekeeper, as a recognition of the exceptional results she had during her participation in the UN Mission of Stabilization in Haiti. I would also remind here that UN wanting to increase the role of women in uniform in the peacekeeping missions became an operational objective, with a 15% target for the end of this year.
Our country already has a 27-year long tradition of contribution with blue caps, starting in 1991, when the first Romanian military were deployed in Iraq and Kuwait, and now it participates in several of the most risky missions. There are also a series of additional military capabilities that Romania contributed to the UN for deployment in the operation theatres, starting in 2016; an infantry company, a military transport aircraft, a detachment for neutralizing explosive devices, an increased number of military observers. According to the commitment made at the Summit on peacekeeping missions, in New York, September 2015, our country is going to provide UN with four military transport helicopters, which are to be evaluated and certified in 2019, as well as with a Set Up Police Unit. It is also important to remind that, among all member states, Romania is ranking 1st in terms of the number of police officers sent in UN missions. And, finally, the Application School for Officers of the Romanian Gendarmerie is annually organizing, starting in 2013, in French, the International Superior Contest dedicated to officers from the internal security and defence structures in Romania and other states. Up to now there have been 14 graduate promotions of officers from 26 European, African and Asian states.
Last but not least, we are the only country that provides, through the Protection and Guard Service (SPP), close protection units for the high UN dignitaries going to the conflict areas. Starting in 2009, in Bucharest operates a joint centre of UN-SPP for training UN protection officers operating in the high risk areas. More than 200 UN officers graduated this training programme in English.
AGERPRES: Romania will hold in the first six months of 2019 the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, other six months before and after, it will be a member of the trio of the EU Presidency and will become a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council in 2020-2021. Therefore, for three years and a half Bucharest will be at the top of the European and world decision-makers. You stated in an interview that “the reverberations of such a position could project the international prominence of Romania for the next decade.” What does Romania have to do in this 3 years and a half period to develop this international prominence? Is this a crossroad moment for the Romanian diplomacy?
Ion Jinga: I hope your optimism regarding the obtaining by Romania of a seat of non-permanent member on the Security Council be auspicious. Yet I find it early to display the certainty of success. We compete next to Estonia (I’m not against Estonia) for the single seat of non-permanent member allocated to the East-European Group in the Security Council. Estonia, a friend country and a partner Romania is collaborating tightly in numerous European projects, is a EU, NATO member, develops a sustained, intelligent campaign which it allocated important political and diplomatic resources to, and has never been a member of this UN body so far. Both countries promote their candidacies transparently and in fair play. In other words, we have a remarkable opponent, that knows to use its cards. If we make it to get the vote of at least two-thirds of the UN member countries, then we could talk about capitalising these prestigious mandates for Romania’s international stature. Until then, we talk of a team work which if successful, will turn into a victory of a great team called Romania.
AGERPRES: This year’s events dedicated to the Great Union’s Centennial are overlapping, at the Permanent Representation of Romania to the UN with the promotion of our country’s candidacy for a new mandate of non-permanent member of the Security Council in 2020-2021. As you have recalled on the occasion of one of these events, Romania is a charter member of the League of Nations, back in 1919. Is this context beneficial to Romania’s move?
Ion Jinga: Romania’s Mission to the UN is deeply committed to promote, in the UN milieus and not only, the national project dedicated to the celebration of the Great Union’s Centennial. The already organised events in New York and the ones which are to be held in the next months could offer us a plus of visibility, from the perspective of the country’s candidacy to the Security Council included, yet without any direct connection. Romania is a founding member of the League of Nations, and this is an argument we use to show that our commitment in favour of the multilateral diplomacy as a tool to promoting international peace and security is a long shot one, being a calling card that grows the guarantee that the approach for the Security Council is not conjectural, but is grounded on a 100-year continuity in our foreign policy.
AGERPRES: Mr. ambassador, you are, starting with this year the chairman of the ambassadors Group of the member countries of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) to the UN, after you used to be deputy-chairman of this group in 2015-2017. Could you give us examples of concrete situations when the OIF member countries have acted as a unitary block within the UN? What is the stakes of this position for the Romanian diplomacy?
Ion Jinga: I’ve been honoured to having been elected as president of the Francophone ambassadors to the UN, New York and i believe that this is firstly as recognition of Romania’s remarkable contribution to the promotion of the values of La Francophonie: modernity, democracy, rule of law, human rights’ observance, respect for other cultures. The francophone states have several specific common interests at the UN, such as a better enforcement of the multilingualism principle (the UN has six official languages – English, French, Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Arabian, the first two being the working languages of the organisation), for the recruiting, the public procurement processes included, and also for the staff sent in UN missions in Francophone countries. I have led a reunion on this topic on 7 March 2018 attended by the UN Secretary General, Mr. Antonio Guterres. Romania has a significant presence with military and police officers in several UN peacekeeping missions in Francophone countries. Moreover, staged are several meetings with UN or governmental high officials who come to present their objectives and ask for the support of the UN Francophone group, events that I chair. In addition, a Francophone solidarity exists when adopting certain important resolutions of the General Assembly, or in matter of candidacies in the UN system, Francophone candidates (countries or persons) having the opportunity to come present their programmes in front of the Group and ask fort support, that could be decisive given that the OIF counts for 84 members.
AGERPRES: The PSD president Liviu Dragnea has asked the Romanian Foreign Affairs minister to come with an activity assessment of each diplomatic mission’s head. Clearly, Romania’s Permanent Representation to the UN is not an ordinary diplomatic mission from the assessment criteria viewpoint. How do you expect to be your activity’s assessment? And looking ahead, which are for you the three main targets in 2018 in your position?
Ion Jinga: The assessment of the diplomatic missions’ activities is carried whenever deemed as necessary, by the people in charge with it. It is not my place to anticipate the outcome of the assessment you are referring to. I can only tell you that the team I am leading does whatever it depends on it for the interests, the reputation and the image of Romania to the United Nations be promoted and defended professionally, with dedication and unconditioned loyalty to the country. In the past two years and a half since I took over the position of Romania’s Permanent Representative to the UN, New York I was elected chairman of the Commission for Social Development (2015-2016), chairman of the Group of government experts for the negotiation of the UN Report on military spending transparency – MILEX (2016-2017; MILEX has only been summoned once in 2011, when the German ambassador chaired), co-president of the intergovernmental negotiations Process regarding the Security Council’s reform (2016-2017; first ambassador from Eastern Europe appointed to this position), president of the Commission for Population and Development (2017-2018; a first for Romania), chairman of the Peacebuilding Commission (2018; also a first for Romania’s diplomacy; Peacebuilding Commission is one of the most important UN commissions), president of the Francophone ambassadors’ Group (2018, once again a first for us in New York). Between brackets, the UN General Assembly’s President granted me on 7 September 2017 the “Diploma of Honour for the remarkable contribution to the success of the activity of the 71st Session of the General Assembly.” I’d add that in the said period all of the elections organised in New York for UN structures with Romania having candidates to, were won. There are also the missions in the UN intervention areas, for instance this March I’ve been in Chad in my capacity of president of the Peacebuilding Commission to attend the Ministerial Conference of the states within the Sahel region and see UN financed projects. It was a very useful experience, because one cannot have the legitimacy to talk about problems the countries and the population in a certain region are confronted with, if they don’t know the reality on the spot. This visit made me respect the more the resilience of those people, who have the same right with us to a decent life. We are all born equals, but evolve differently due to some factors that are sometimes completely independent from our individual skills and effort. Seeing the dry desert and the unimaginable effort each plant, animal and human being make to survive, I was thinking of how blessed Romania is.
As for the targets of Romania’s Mission to the UN and implicitly the mission’s head’s in 2018, they circumscribe the mandate set each year by the leadership of the Foreign Affairs Ministry and approved by the President of Romania for the respective session of the General Assembly. Being Romania’s diplomatic voice to the UN, our goal is firstly to display our country’s stance and promote Romania’s objectives within the UN, in New York. The wide range of topics we address, as well as the increasing responsibility assumed by Romania internationally are found in priorities such as the growth of the UN efficiency in tackling the threats at the international peace and stability, the maintaining of the Security Council as a main symbol and forum of the international cooperation for peace, the use of the preventive diplomacy and the peaceful resolving of the disputes, the continuation of the UN reform process, the implementation of Agenda 2030 for durable development, the promotion of dialogue and of a tighter cooperation between the UN and the regional and subregional organisations.
In this period, priority zero to us is Romania’s candidacy for a seat of non-permanent member on the UN Security Council in 2020-2021. Only 15 states are there, of which five are permanent members. Let’s bring Romania for two years to the top of the world decision as regards the planet’s peace and security, along the big powers of the world, I guess it is worth any effort.
AGERPRES: Mr. Ambassador, on the web page of Romania’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations you have a welcome word to the virtual visitors that ends in the suggestion to contact the mission by e-mail for comments, questions, suggestions. What are the most surprising messages you’ve received this way?
Ion Jinga: I maintain this suggestion, because it is very important for us to have a feedback from the ones interested in Romania’s activity to the UN. Most of the messages received are from young people to wish to attend various internships at the Permanent Mission of Romania at the UN, which is pleasing us because regularly they are well prepared, enthusiastic and willing to have the chance to see how the multilateral diplomacy is basically concluded. Moreover, there are delegations of young people who visit the UN seat and to meet us so we share from the diplomatic life’s backstage. One of the questions they ask is: “How can a state become a UN Security Council’s permanent member?” It is a question many countries do ask for over 25 years, as part of the reform process of the Security Council. Maybe someday the answer will come from exactly those who have asked the question on the website page of Romania’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations.AGERPRES(RO – author: Florin Stefan, editor: Mariana Ionescu; EN – authors: Corneliu-Aurelian Colceriu, Cristina Zaharia, Maria Voican, editor: Maria Voican)
Thoughts by Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Romania to the United Nations – New York, posted in Nine O’Clock on March 7, 2018.
The costs of wars and conflicts today are estimated at 10 trillion USD globally. The international community spent 235 billion USD over the past 10 years on humanitarian responses, peacekeeping and refuges costs, out of which 45 billion USD only last year. More than 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by violent conflicts. Nearly half of all people living in extreme poverty reside in countries affected by conflict and fragility, and unless concerted action is taken by 2030, this figure is expected to rise to 80% by 2035. Using the words of Mahatma Gandhi, “poverty is the worst form of violence”.
The international community too often responded only after a crisis started, and the UN was traditionally known for conflict response, rather than conflict prevention. The General Assembly created in 2005 (resolution 60/180) the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC), an intergovernmental advisory body whose main purposes are “to bring together all relevant actors to marshal resources and to advise on and propose integrated strategies for post-conflict peacebuilding and recovery”.
With the number of violent conflicts almost tripled in the last ten years, it was high time for a new approach and in 2016 the paradigm shifted from post-conflict peacebuilding to prevention. The Security Council and the General Assembly adopted twin resolutions on the review of the UN peacebuilding architecture (2282/2016) and 70/262), which introduced the concept of sustaining peace, “broadly understood as a goal and a process to build a common vision of a society, which encompasses activities aimed at preventing the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of conflict, addressing root causes, ensuring national reconciliation, and moving forward towards recovery, reconstruction and development”.
In the new philosophy, prevention becomes a cross-cutting priority and is seen as the broad set of activities that address root causes of conflict. Classical prevention activities – such as mediation, preventive diplomacy, cooperation and dialogue – intertwines now with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and with the human rights dimension.
The PBC was tasked “to bring international attention to sustaining peace…; to promote an integrated, strategic and coherent approach to peacebuilding, noting that security, development and human rights are closely linked and mutually reinforcing; to serve a bridging role among the principal organs and relevant entities of the United Nations…; to serve as a platform to convene all relevant actors… in order to develop and share good practices in peacebuilding”.
But prevention not only saves lives, it is also cost-effective. An UN-World Bank joint study released in Washington DC on 6 March 2018 (“Pathways for Peace: Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict”) estimates that effective prevention would save from 5 to 70 billion USD per year for the affected countries and the international community combined. The study may become a revolutionary tool for a new collaborative approach, because it connects the development reform proposed by the UN Secretary General with the sustaining peace agenda.
A significant number of conflicts are located in Africa. Contrary to some stereotypes, Africa is not poor. Whilst many people in African countries live in poverty, the continent is rich in terms of human potential and natural resources. According to statistics, in 2015 countries in Africa exported 232 billion USD worth of minerals and oil to the rest of the world. Africa’s potential mineral reserves are estimated to dozens trillion USD. What African countries need is conditions to value this richness for their own development. Peace, stability and democracy are essential ingredients in this respect, but whereas there are many incentives for fueling conflicts, incentives for prevention are too few. Building sustaining peace requires transparency, inclusion, participation and consultation of all political and social actors in the respective countries, but also development incentives. At the same time, peacebuilding activities at all stages must respect national sovereignty and be based on local ownership.
From an economic perspective, on short-term the peacebuilding efforts are mainly focused on humanitarian aid and institutional funding. But on long-term, sustaining peace needs the existence of enterprises and business opportunities, employment and economic growth. Because the main economic challenge of peacebuilding is to generate an environment favorable to sustainable development, engaging more strategically with the private sector is key in shaping and implementing the peacebuilding priorities. Communication also plays a role and it would be wise to invite the media to become a partner in rising awareness on peacebuilding and sustaining peace, whenever possible.
On 5 March 2018, the UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres briefed the General Assembly on his report on Peacebuilding and Sustaining Peace, noting that “if the financial cost of conflict is unsustainable, the human cost is unbearable”. His vision is that sustaining peace is becoming a responsibility of the entire UN system and therefore a more integrated approach of activities undertaken under the three main pillars of the UN is necessary.
The report also underlines the PBC’s unique role in advancing intergovernmental coherence thorough its cross-pillar mandate. The PBC platform has already been used for constructive discussions on Burkina Faso, Kyrgyzstan, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Somalia and Sri Lanka. With the support of the international community in Liberia, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of former combatants proceeded peacefully because the process included women, youth, civil society and the private sector. In Colombia, assisted by the UN, the government successfully engaged with the private sector and civil society in healing the wounds of a long-term internal conflict and restored the path to recovery and development. The next test case for this holistic approach may be the Sahel region, where there is a clear need to address both the security and the development facets of the crisis.
The work plan of the Peacebuilding Commission, which in 2018 is chaired by Romania, reflects priorities mentioned before: regional approach, partnerships, sustaining peace, synergies, communication. With prevention becoming a new religion at the United Nations, the paradigm shift requires that instead of spending on conflict, we spend on peace. The United Nations is the natural place to do so.
Thoughts by H.E. Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Romania to the United Nations – New York, posted on nineoclock.ro on 20 December 2017.
On Saturday 16 December 2017 bells of all churches in Romania tolled, mourning King Michael of Romania who started his last journey from the Royal Palace in Bucharest to the royal necropolis in Cathedral of Curtea de Arges (The Court upon river Argeș), a little town in the Carpathian Mountains, once the capital of medieval principality of Walachia in the 13th century. The legend of this cathedral built in early 16th century is a tale about human sacrifice, love for work and death for creation.
Foreign royals, including former King Juan Carlos of Spain and Queen Sofia, King Carl Gustaf of Sweden and Queen Silvia, former Queen Anne-Marie of Greece, Prince Charles of Wales, the Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg, Prince Lorenz and Princess Astrid of Belgium, joined the President of Romania Klaus Werner Iohannis to bid farewell at the catafalque.
Tens of thousands of Romanians came to pay their respects to King Michael and an impressive state funeral service took place in Bucharest, led by Patriarch Daniel, the head of the Romanian Orthodox Church, in the same cathedral where The King was crowned on Sept. 6, 1940. Thousands of people acclaimed The King when the Royal train entered the rail stations of towns located on the way between Bucharest and Curtea de Arges. When soldiers from the 30th Guard Brigade “Michael the Brave” carried the coffin on their shoulders to the tomb, the long way of King Michael to his ancestors came to an end, and his legend begun.
For Romanians, King Michael was a moral symbol and an anchor of hope in an age dominated by totalitarian regimes. Historians believe that his decision to remove Romania from its alliance with the powers of the Axis on 23 August 1944 has shortened the duration of the Second World War by at least six months. He was forced to abdicate on 30 December 1947 and allowed to return to Romania only in 1992, where he was acclaimed by a crowd of one million people in Bucharest.
I first met The King in 1997 in Brussels when, at the request of the Romanian Government, he visited several capitals to lobby in favor of Romania’s accession to NATO. As a young diplomat in love with history, meeting King Michael was like a fairytale, because he made history. I always believed that in many aspects the past shapes the present and anticipates the future.
When I was appointed ambassador to Belgium, and later to the United Kingdom, I had the privilege to meet The King sometimes in tete-a-tete, as he and Queen Anne honored me and my wife by accepting to be our guests for lunch or dinner at our residences in Brussels and London. Listening King Michael talking about crucial moments he personally witnessed was fabulous, as he had a special gift of transposing his audience back in the times of events.
A most memorable moment in my life was in 2008 when, alongside Ivor Porter – a British diplomat and SOE operative parachuted in Romania during WW2, who later wrote two books about his Romanian experience (one devoted to King Michael), and Jonathan Eyal – director at the Royal United Services Institute, I received from The King’s hand “The Cross of Romania’s Royal Household”, in a moving ceremony at 1 Belgrave Square, in the same room when in 1939 Sir Winston Churchill met the Romanian Foreign Minister Grigore Gafencu.
I saw The King at the royal wedding in April 2011, then at the service of thanksgiving in St. Paul’s Cathedral celebrating HM Queen Elisabeth II Diamond Jubilee in 2012, and again that year in the Queen’s Chapel of the Savoy, when King Michael celebrated 75 years since he was awarded the British Royal Victorian Order. He is the first foreign sovereign to have the coat of arms in the Savoy Chapel.
I remember a lunch once we had at the Royal Automobile Club in Pall Mall. In the RAC hall a pre-WW2 car was exhibiting and when seeing it King Michael, who loved cars, said without hesitation: “This is a Bugatti 1931!” Checking the note on the car-side I went speechless, because he was right.
In the years which followed I wrote to him in Switzerland on his birthdays and Christmas Eves. His private secretary took time to politely respond, but not anymore after Queen Anne passed away in August 2016. I attended the Queen’s burial, but I couldn’t leave New York for the King’s funeral. Instead, a candle burned for him in my apartment in Manhattan. While writing these lines, Elton John’s “Candle in the Wind” comes to my mind: “You lived your life like a candle in the wind, never fading with the sunset…, and your footsteps will always fall here. Your candles burned out long before, your legend never will”.
Indeed, the man rests in his grave, The King found his well-deserved place in history, but his legend will continue to magnify over the years. What will stay with us and the generations to come is his moral compass, his dignity, patriotism and unconditional loyalty to his Country. I can only add the inspired words of the Romanian-American writer Dorin Tudoran: ”Good night Your Majesty!”
La 6 septembrie 2017, E.S. Dr. Ion Jinga, Ambasador, Reprezentantul Permanent al României la Organizația Națiunilor Unite – New York, a participat la emisiunea “La Vama Vremii” cu Nicolae Badiu.